Among his names; Ibn Nufayl Ibn `Abd al-`Uzza Ibn Rayyah, Shaykh Al-Islam, Amir al-Mu�minin, Abu Hafs al-Qurashi al-`Adawi A Farouk.

Umar Ibn Al Khattab was described as fair-skinned with some reddishness, tall with a large build, fast-paced, and a skilled fighter and horseman. He embraced Islam after having fought it, in the year 6 of the Prophethood, at age twenty-seven. This was the result of the Prophet Mohammad�s explicit supplication:
“O Allah! Strengthen Islam with `Umar Ibn Al-Khattab.”

In his time Islam reached Egypt, Syria, Sijistan, Persia, and other regions. He died a martyr at the age of sixty-six, stabbed in the back while praying, by a Sabean or Zoroastrian slave.

`Umar al-Faruq was second only to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq in closeness to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH).

Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said: “I have two ministers from the inhabitants of the heaven and two ministers from the inhabitants of the earth. The former are Jibreel and Mika�il, and the latter are Abu Bakr and `Umar.” He said of the latter: “These two are [my] hearing and eyesight” and instructed his Companions: “Follow those that come after me: Abu Bakr and `Umar.”

Umar was given the gift of true inspiration. Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said:

“Allah has engraved truth on the tongue of `Umar and his heart” and “If there were a Prophet after me verily it would be `Umar.”

Moreover, Umar Ibn AL Khattab had the unique distinction of having his views confirmed by the revelation in the Holy Qur�an: He said things which were confirmed by subsequent revelations. Examples for that:

“I said to Prophet Mohammad: “O Messenger of Allah! Why do we not pray behind Ibrahim�s Station?” Whereupon was revealed the verse: “. . . Take as your place of worship the place where Ibrahim stood (to pray). . .” (2:125); I said: “O Messenger of Allah! You should order your wives to cover because both the chaste and the wicked go in to see them,” whereupon was revealed the verse: “… And when you ask of them (the wives of the Prophet) anything, ask it of them from behind a curtain. . .” (33:53) Then the Prophet�s wives banded together in their jealousy over him, so I said to them: If he divorced you, God will give him better wives that you� whereupon was revealed this verse “It may happen that his Lord, if he divorce you, will give him instead wives better than you, [submissive (to Allah), believing, pious, penitent, inclined to fasting, widows and maids].”(66:5)

He was distinguished in his power of separating truth from falsehood and Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) conferred on him the title of Al Farouk (the separator between what’s true and what’s false), saying:

“In truth, the devil certainly parts ways with Umar.”

Umar memorized Surrha Al-Baqara (1) in twelve years, and when he had learned it completely he slaughtered a camel. Imam Malik stated that on Umar’s suggestion the words “I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah” were added to the adh�n (the call for prayer), and likewise the words “Prayer is better than Sleep” to the adh�n for the dawn prayer. However, the more correct report is that it is Belal who first inserted the latter formula in the call to the dawn prayer and Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) retained it.

Umar Ibn Al-Khattab was the first Muslim ruler to establish a Public Treasury; the first Muslim ruler to levy Al Ushr, the Customs or Import Duty. It was levied on the goods of the traders of other countries who chose to trade in the Muslim dominions, at up to 10% of the goods imported and on a reciprocal basis. `Ushr was levied in a way to avoid hardships, and only on merchandise meant for sale, not goods imported for consumption or for personal use.

Also Umar was the first Muslim ruler to organize a census; the first Muslim ruler to strike coins; the first Muslim ruler to organize a system of canals for irrigation; and the first Muslim ruler to formally organize provinces, cities, and districts.

Moreover, Umar established the system of guest-houses and rest-houses on major routes to and from major cities. He established schools throughout the land and allocated liberal salaries for teachers. He was the first to ban temporary marriage (mut`a marriage), according to Prophet Mohammad�s earlier prohibition. Also Umar was the first Muslim ruler to place the law of inheritance on a firm basis. He was the first to establish trusts, and the first ruler in history to separate the judiciary from the executive.

He took pains to provide effective and speedy justice for the people. He set up an effective system of judicial administration under which justice was administered according to the principles of Islam. Judges were appointed at all administrative levels for the administration of justice and were chosen for their honesty and knowledge of Islamic law. High salaries were paid to them and they were appointed from among the wealthy and those of high social standing, to prevent being influenced by the social position of any litigants. The judges were not allowed to engage in trade.

From time to time, Umar used to issue edicts laying down the principles for the administration of justice. One of his edicts read:

“Glory to Allah! Verily Justice is an important obligation to Allah and to man. You have been charged with this responsibility. Discharge this responsibility so that you may win the approbation of Allah and the good will of the people. Treat the people equally in your presence, and in your decisions, so that the weak despair not of justice and the high-placed harbor no hope of favoritism. The onus of proof lies on the plaintiff, while the party who denies must do so on oath. Compromise is permissible, provided that it does not turn the unlawful into something lawful, and the lawful into something unlawful. Let nothing prevent you from changing your previous decision if after consideration you feel that the previous decision was incorrect. When you are in doubt about a question and find nothing concerning it in the Qur�an or the Sunnah of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), ponder the question over and over again. Ponder over the precedents and analogous cases, and then decide by analogy. A term should be fixed for the person who wants to produce witnesses. If he proves his case, discharge for him his right. Otherwise the suit should be dismissed. All Muslims are trustworthy, except those who have been punished with flogging, those who have borne false witness, or those of doubtful integrity.”

One day Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari, the governor of Basra at the time, sent a letter to Umar Ibn Al Khattab complaining that the ordinances, instructions, and that letters from the Caliph were undated and therefore gave rise to problems linked to the sequence of their implementation.

Because of this and other similar problems of undatedness, Umar convened an assembly of scholars and advisors to consider the question of calendar reforms. The deliberations of this assembly resulted in the combined opinion that Muslims should have a calendar of their own. The point that was next considered was from when should the new Muslim calendar era begin.

Some suggested that the era should begin from the birth of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), while others suggested that it should begin from the time of his death. `Ali suggested that the era should begin from the date the Muslims migrated from Mekkah to Al Madinah, and this was agreed upon.

The next question considered was the month from which the new era should start. Some suggested that it should start from the month of Rabi` al-Awwal, some from Rajab, others from Ramadan, others from Dhu al-Hijja. `Uthman suggested that the new era should start from the month of Muharram because that was the first month in the Arabic calendar at that time. This was agreed upon. Since the Migration had taken place in the month of Rabi` al-Awwal, two months and eight days after the first of Muharram that year, the date was pushed back by two months and eight days, and the new Hijri calendar began with the first day of Muharram in the year of the Migration rather than from the actual date of the Migration.

`Abd Allah Ibn `Isa Ibn Abi Layla related: “There were two dark lines in `Umar�s face marked by tears.” Al-Hasan al-Basri and Hisham ibn al-Hasan narrated that `Umar sometimes lost consciousness after reciting a verse from the Qur�an, whereupon he would be taken ill and visited for days. Among `Umar�s sayings:

“O Allah! Grant me to die a martyr, and make my death be in your Prophet�s country.”

“Take account of yourselves before your are brought to account.”

Jabir narrated that he heard `Umar Ibn Al-Khattab say on the pulpit when he married Umm Kulthum, the daughter of `Ali and Fatima: “Do not disparage me [for marrying a young girl], for I heard the Prophet say: �On the Judgment Day every means will be cut off and every lineage severed except my lineage.�” He desired to place himself in the Prophet�s lineage through this marriage due to the precedence of Ahl al-Bayt in the Prophet�s intercession. Umm Kulthum bore him two children, Zayd and Ruqayya.

From `Ubayd Allah ibn `Umar ibn Hafs: `Umar was see carrying a slaughtered animal on his back. He was asked why, and he replied: “I was infatuated with myself and wanted to humble myself.”

As `Umar�s head lay in Ibn `Umar�s lap after being stabbed he said to him: “Lay my cheek on the ground.” Then he said: “Woe to me, my mother�s woe to me if my Lord does not grant me mercy!” The next morning Al-Miswar woke him for the dawn prayer. `Umar said: “Yes, and there is no part in Islam for whoever leaves prayer.” He prayed bleeding from his wounds.

Source: islamfortoday.com

Uthman Ibn Affan was born seven years after Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). He comes from the Umayyad branch of the Quraysh tribe.

He learned to read and write at an early age, and then became a successful well-known merchant.

Uthman had been famous for his honesty and frankness even before embracing Islam. He and Abu Bakr (another companion of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) were close friends, and it was through Abu Bakr’s help that Uthman embraced Islam at the age of fourteen. Uthman was the fourth person to enter into Islam.

Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said about Uthman:

“Every Prophet has an assistant, and my assistant will be Othman.”

Some years later Uthman married Prophet Mohammad’s daughter, Al Sayeda Ruqayya may Allah be pleased with her. In spite of his wealth and position, never stopped plotting against him as a result of embracing Islam and he was forced to immigrate to Ethiopia. Some time later he returned to Mecca but soon migrated to Medina with the other Muslims.

In Medina his business again began to flourish and he regained his former prosperity. Uthman was also well-known for his limitless generosity. On various occasions he spent a great portion of his wealth for the welfare of the Muslims, for charity and for providing the Muslim armies with needed equipments. That is why he came to be known as ‘Ghani’ meaning ‘Generous.’

Just before the Battle of Badr Uthman’s wife, Ruqayya, got seriously ill, and he was excused by the Prophet (PBUH) from participating in the battle. The illness of Ruqayya proved fatal and she died, Othman married Al Sayeda Um Kulthoom (May Allah be pleased with her), another daughter of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). Because he had the high privilege of having two daughters of the Prophet as wives Othman was known as ‘The One with the Two Lights.’ When Um Kulthoom died Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said:

“If I had third daughter I would wed you to her (also).”

Uthman Ibn Affan was an honest, mild, generous and very kindly man, well-known especially for his modesty and his piety. He often spent part of the night in prayer, fasted every second or third day, performed hajj every year, and supported and cared for the needy of the whole Islamic community. In spite of his wealth, he lived a very simple life and slept on bare sand in the courtyard of Prophet Mohammad’s mosque. He was one of the ten companions that were given the good tidings of paradise during their lifetimes.

The Virtues of Othman:

The Companion Abu Musa Al-Ash’aree narrated:

“I performed ablution in my house and then went out and said: ‘Today I shall stick to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) all this day of mine (in his service).’ I went to the Mosque and asked about the Prophet (PBUH). They said: ‘He has gone in this direction.’ So I followed his way, asking about him till he entered a place called The Well of Aris. I sat at its gate made of date-palm leaves till the Prophet (PBUH) performed ablution. Then I went up to him and saw him sitting at the well of Aris at the middle of its edge with his legs uncovered, hanging in the well. I greeted him, went back, and sat at the gate. I said: ‘Today I will be the gatekeeper of the Prophet (PBUH).�

Abu Bakr came and pushed the gate. I asked: ‘Who is it?’ He said: ‘Abu Bakr.’ I told him to wait, and then I went in and said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! Abu Bakr asks permission to enter.’ He said: ‘Admit him and give him the glad tidings that he will be in Paradise.’ So I went out and said to Abu Bakr: ‘Come in, and the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) gives you the glad tidings that you will be in Paradise.’ Abu Bakr entered and sat on the right side of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) on the built edge of the well as the Prophet (PBUH) did and uncovered his legs and he praised Allah.

I returned and sat (at the gate). I had left my brother performing ablution and he intended to follow me. So I said to myself: ‘If Allah wants good for (my brother) He will bring him here.’

Suddenly somebody moved the door. I asked: ‘Who is it?’ He said: ‘ Umar ibn Al-Khattab.’ The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: ‘Admit him and give him the glad tidings that he will be in Paradise.’ So I did, and he (Umar) entered and sat beside the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) on the built edge of the well on the left side and hung his legs in the well.

I returned (to the gate) and said (to myself): ‘If Allah wants good for (my brother), He will bring him here.’ Somebody came and moved the door. I asked: ‘Who is it?’ He replied: ‘ Uthman Ibn Affan.’ I asked him to wait and informed the Prophet (PBUH). He said: ‘Admit him and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise after a calamity that will befall him.’ So I went to him and said: ‘Come in. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) gives you the glad tidings of entering Paradise after a calamity that will befall you.’ Uthman then came in and found that the built edge of the well was occupied, so he sat opposite to the Prophet (PBUH) on the other side.”

The Companion Anas ibn Malik (May Allah be pleased with him) said:

The Prophet (PBUH) Once climbed mount Uhud with Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman. The mountain shook with them. The Prophet (PBUH) said (to the mountain):

“Be firm O Uhud! For on you there are no more than a Prophet and a Siddeeq and two martyrs.”

Uthman (May Allah be pleased with him) provided two hundred camels for the impoverished army of the Muslims complete with saddle blankets and reins. Moreover he distributed thousands of dinars (currency at that time) for the welfare of Islam.

Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said:

“O Uthman! Allah has forgiven you your previous sins as well as your future sins, what you have hidden, as well as what you have made public and whatever is until the Day of Judgment.”

Uthman bought the land adjacent to Prophet Mohammad’s mosque in order to expand the mosque of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH).

The son of Omar (May Allah be pleased with him) said:

“The mosque during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was built of adobes, its roof of the leaves of date-palms and its pillars of the stems of date-palms. Abu Bakr did not alter it. Umar expanded it on the same pattern as it was in the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) by using adobes leaves of date-palms, and changing the pillars into wooden ones. Uthman changed it by expanding it to a great extent and built its walls with engraved stones and lime and made its pillars of engraved stones and its roof of teak wood.”

Aicha (May Allah be pleased with her) said:

“The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was reclining in his house with his legs uncovered. Abu Bakr asked permission to enter and he permitted him to enter while he was in that state and they began talking. Then Omar asked permission to enter and he permitted him to enter while he was in the same state and they began talking. Then Uthman asked permission to enter and the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) sat up and adjusted his clothes and then he (Uthman) entered and they began talking. When they departed, I (Aicha) said: “(When) Abu Bakr and Umar entered you did not become enlivened and you did not (change your) state, (but) when Uthman entered, you sat up and adjusted your clothing.” The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) replied: “Should I not be bashful in front of one who the angels are bashful in front of?”

Uthman�s Caliphate:

During Uthman’s rule the characteristics of Abu Bakr’s and Omar’s caliphates – impartial justice for all, mild and humane policies, striving in the path of God, and the expansion of Islam – continued. During Uthman’s rule the Muslim kingdom extended in the west to Morocco, in the east to Afghanistan, and in the north to Armenia and Azerbaijan. During his caliphate a navy was organized, administrative divisions of the state were revised, and many public projects were expanded and completed.

Uthman ruled for twelve years. The first six years Muslims enjoyed internal peace and tranquility, but during the second half of his caliphate a rebellion arose. The Jews and the Magians, taking advantage of dissatisfaction among the people, began plotting against Uthman.

It may seem surprising that a ruler of such vast territories, whose armies were matchless, was unable to deal with these rebels. If Othman had wished, the rebellion could have been crushed at the very moment it began. But he was reluctant to be the first to shed the blood of Muslims, however rebellious they might be. He preferred to solve it in a peaceful way and tried to persuade them with kindness and generosity. He well remembered hearing the Prophet (peace be on him) say:

“Once the sword is unsheathed among my followers, it will not be sheathed until the Last Day.”

The rebels demanded that he resign and some of the Companions advised him to do so. He would gladly have followed this course of action, but again he was bound by the promise he had given to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). “Perhaps God will clothe you with a shirt, Uthman” the Prophet (PBUH) had told him once, “and if the people want you to take it off, do not take it off for them.” Uthman said to a well-wisher on a day when his house was surrounded by the rebels, “God’s Messenger made a covenant with me and I shall show endurance in adhering to it.”

Uthman’s Assassination:

After a long siege, the rebels broke into Uthman’s house and murdered him. When the first assassin’s sword struck Othman, he was reciting the verse,

“So if they believe in what you believe, then they would be guided, but if they turn away the are averse to the Truth, and God is sufficient to deal with them, He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing” Qur’an (2:137)

Uthman died on the afternoon of Friday, 17 Zul Hijja, 35 A.H. � June 656 A.C. He was eighty-four years old.

Source: Muslim Students Association

Sa�d Ibn Abi Waqqas, one of the companions of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). Sad comes from a rich and noble family. And was so much attached to his family, specially his mother.

He was known for being serious and intelligent. Before embracing Islam he used to feel that he doesn�t fit in the lifestyle of his people, also he was never satisfied with their religious beliefs.

On day Abu Bakr, one of the famous companions of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) came up and spoke softly to Sa�d, and explained to him what Islam is about. Then took him to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). It was late afternoon by this time and the Prophet had just prayed Salat al-Asr. Sa�d was excited and overwhelmed and responded very quickly to the invitation to truth and the religion of Allah. The fact that he was among the first people to embrace accept Islam was something that gave him great satisfaction.

The Prophet (PBUH) was also greatly pleased with the fact that Sa�d has become a Muslim. The Prophet (PBUH) saw in Sa�d signs of brilliance. The fact that he was still in his youth promised great things to come.

The Prophet (PBUH) was happy with his family relationship to Sa�d. Once as he was sitting with his companions, he saw S�ad coming and he said to them:

“This is my maternal uncle. Let a man see his maternal uncle!”

Indeed Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) was delighted with Sad’s acceptance of Islam, but Sa�d�s mother was not. Sa�d narrates:

“When my mother knew that I became a Muslim, she flew into a rage. She came up to me and said:

“O Sad! What is this religion that you have joined which has taken you away from the religion of your mother and father…? Either you abandon this new religion or I would not eat or drink until I die. Your heart would be broken with grief for me and remorse would consume you on account of the deed which you have done and people would censure you forever more.’

‘Don’t do this to me mother,’ I said, ‘for I would not give up my religion for anything in the world.’

Sa�d�s mother carried out her threat… For days she neither ate nor drank. And thus her health has majorly deteriorated. Once Sa�d went to visit his mother trying to convince her to eat, he narrates:

‘Mother! In spite of my strong love for you, my love for Allah and His Messenger is way stronger. By Allah, if you had a thousand souls and one soul after another were to depart, I would not abandon Islam for anything.’ When she saw that I was determined she relented unwillingly and ate and drank.”

It was concerning Sad’s relationship with his mother and her attempt to forsake Islam that the words of the Qur�an were revealed:

“And we enjoined on man (to be good) to his parents. In pain upon pain did his mother bear him and his weaning took two years. So show gratitude to Me and to your parents. To Me is the final destiny.

“But if they strive to make you join in worship with Me things of which you have no knowledge, obey them not. Yet bear them company in this life with justice and consideration and follow the way of those who turn to Me. In the end, the return of you all i s to Me and I shall tell you (the truth and meaning of) all that you used to do.” Qur�an (31: 14-15).

Sa�d ibn Abi Waqqas had distinguished role in many of the battles that took place both during the time of the Prophet (PBUH)and after. He fought at the battle of Badr together with his young brother Umayr who had cried to be allowed to join the Muslim army for he was only in his early teens. Sa�d returned to Madinah alone for Umayr was killed in the battle.

At the Battle of Uhud, Sa�d was chosen as one of the best warriors together with Zayd, Saib the son of Uthman ibn Mazun and others. Sa�d was one of those who fought strongly in defence of the Prophet (PBUH) after some Muslims had deserted their positions. To urge him on, the Prophet (PBUH), said:

” Shoot, Sa�d …may my mother and father be your ransom.”

Sad is also known as the first companion to have shot an arrow in defence of Islam. And the Prophet once prayed for him saying:

“O Lord, direct his shooting and respond to his prayer.”

Sa�d was one of the companions of the Prophet who enjoyed great wealth. Just as he was known for his bravery, so he was known for his generosity. During the Farewell Pilgrimage with Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), he fell ill. The Prophet came to visit him and said:

“O Messenger of Allah. I have wealth and I only have one daughter to inherit from me. Shall I give two thirds of my wealth in charity?”

“No,” replied the Prophet.

“Then, (shall I give) a half?” asked Sad and the Prophet again said ‘no’.

“Then, (shall I give) a third?’ asked Sa�d.

“Yes,” said the Prophet. “The third is much. Indeed to leave your heirs well-off’ is better than that you should leave them dependent on others and to beg from people. If you spend anything seeking to gain thereby the pleasure of Allah, you will be rewarded for it even if it is a morsel which you place in your wife’s mouth.”

Sa�d did not remain the father of just one child but was blessed thereafter with many children.

Sa�d is mainly renowned as the commander-in-chief of the strong Muslim army which Umar dispatched to fight the Persians at the Battle of Qadisiyyah.

It wasn�t an easy task to fight the very strong army of Persia. The most powerful force had to be mustered. Umar sent dispatches to Muslim governors throughout the state to gather all strong men who had weapons or mounts, or who had talents of oratory and other skills to join the Muslims in the battle.

When they had all gathered, Umar consulted the Muslims leaders about the appointment of a commander-in-chief over the mighty army. Umar himself thought of leading the army but Ali suggested that the Muslims were in great need of him. So Sa�d was then chosen as commander and Abdur-Rahman ibn Awl, one of the veterans among the Prophet�s companions said:

“You have chosen well! Who is there like Sa�d?” Umar stood before the army and bade farewell to them. To the commander-in-chief he said:

“O Sad! Let not any statement that you are the uncle of the Messenger of Allah or that you are the companion of the Messenger of Allah distract you from God. Allah Almighty does not obliterate evil with evil but he wipes out evil with good.

“O Sa�d! There is no connection between God and anyone except obeying Him. In the sight of Allah all people whether nobleman or commoner are the same. Allah is their Lord and they are His worshipers seeking elevation through taqwa (fear of God) and seeking to obtain what is with God through obedience. Consider how the Messenger of Allah used to act with the Muslims and act accordingly…”

Sa�d was fully aware of the gravity of the impending battle and kept in close contact with the military high command in Madinah. Although commander-in-chief, he understood the importance of shura (counseling).

Sa�d followed Umar�s instructions.

The Battle of Qadisiyyah is one of the most important battles of world history.

Two years after Qadisiyyah, Sa�d went on to take the Sasanian capital. The taking of Ctesiphon was accomplished after a brilliant crossing of the Tigris river (In Iraq) while it was in flood. Sa�d has thus gone down in the annals of history as the Hero of Qadisiyyah and the Conqueror of Ctesiphon.

Sa�d was blessed with much influence and wealth but as the time of death approached in the year 54 AH, he asked his son to open a box in which he had kept a course woolen jubbah and said:

“Shroud me in this, for in this (jubbah) I fought against the atheists on the day of Badr and in it I desire to meet Allah Almighty.”

ABU UBAIDAH BIN JARRAH

Wajahnya selalu berseri. Matanya bersinar. Tubuhnya tinggi kurus. Bidang bahunya

kecil. Setiap mata senang melihat kepadanya. Dia selalu ramah tamah, sehingga setiap orang merasa simpati kepadanya. Di samping sifatnya yang lemah lembut, dia sangat tawadhu’ (rendah hati) dan sangat pemalu. Tetapi bila menghadapi suatu urusan penting, dia sangat cekap bagaikan singa jantan bertemu musuh.

Dialah kepercayaan ummat Muhammad. Namanya ‘Amir bin ‘Abdillah bin Jarrah Al- Fihry Al-Qurasyi”, dipanggil “Abu ‘Ubaidah”. Abdullah bin ‘Umar pernah bercerita tentang sifat sifat yang mulia, katanya: “Ada tiga orang Quraisy yang sangat cemerlang wajahnya, tinggi akhlak dan sangat pemalu. Bila berbicara, mereka tidak pernah dusta. Dan apabila orang berbicara kepada mereka, mereka tidak cepat-cepat mendustakan. Mereka itu ialah: Abu Bakar Shiddiq, ‘Utsman bin ‘Affan, dan Abu ‘U’baidah bin Jarrah.”

Abu ‘Ubaidah termasük kelompok pertama masuk Islam. Dia masuk Islam ditangan Abu Bakar Shiddiq, sehari sesudah Abu Bakar masuk Islam. Waktu itu beliau menemui Rasulullah saw. bersama-sama dengan ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Auf, ‘Utsman bin Mazh’un dan Arqam bin Abi Arqam untuk mengucapkan syahadat di hadapan beliau. Kerana itu mereka tercatat sebagai tiang-tiang pertama dalam pembangunan mahligai Islam yang agung dan indah.

Dalam kehidupannya sebagai muslim, Abu ‘Ubaidah mengalami masa penindasan yang keras dan kaum Quraisy terhadap kaum muslimin di Makkah, sejak permulaan sampai akhir. Dia turut menderita bersama-sama kaum muslimin yang mula-mula, merasakan tindakan kekerasan, kesulitan dan kesedihan, yang tak pernah dirasakan oleh pengikut agama-agama lain di muka bumi ini. Walaupun beqitu, dia tetap teguh menerima segala macam cubaan. Dia tetap setia dan membenarkan Rasulullah pada setiap situasi dan kondisi yang berubah-ubah.

Bahkan ujian yang dialami Abu ‘Ubaidah dalam perang Badar, melebihi segala macam kekerasan yang pernah kita alami. Abu ‘Ubaidah turut berperang dalam perang Badar. Dia menyusup ke barisan musuh tanpa takut mati Tetapi tentara berkuda kaum musyrikin menghadang dan mengejarnya kemana dia lari. Terutama seorang laki-laki, mengejar Abu ‘Ubaidah dengan sangat beringas kemana saja. Tetapi Abu ‘Ubaidah selalu menghindar dan menjauhkan diri untuk bertarung dengan

orang itu. Orang itu tidak mahu berhenti mengejarnya. Setelah lama berputar-put akhirnya Abu ‘Ubaidah terpojok. Dia waspada menunggu orang yang mengejarnya.

Ketika orang itu tambah dekat kepadanya, dalam posisi yang sangat tepat, Abu ‘Ubaidah mengayunkan pedangnya tepat di kepala lawan. Orang itu jatuh terbanting dengan kepala belah dua. Musuh itu tewas seketika dihadapan Abu ‘Ubaidah. Siapakah lawan Abu ‘Ubaidah yang sangat beringas itu?

Di atas telah dikatakan, tindakan kekerasan terhadap kaum muslimin telah melampaui batas. Mungkin Anda ternganga bila mengetahui musuh yang tewas di tangan Abu ‘Ubaidah itu tak lain ialah “Abdullah bin Jarrah” ayah kandung Abu ‘Ubaidah. Abu ‘Ubaidah tidak membunuh bapanya. Tetapi membunuh kemuysrikan yang bersarang dalam peribadi bapanya. Berkenaan dengan kasus Abu ‘Ubaidah tersebut, Allah swt. berfirman sebagai tersebut

“Kamu tidak akan mendapati suatu kaum yang beriman kepada Allah dan Hari Kiamat, saling berkasih- sayang dengan orang-orang yang menentang Allah dan Rasul Nya, sekalipun orang-orang itu bapak-bapak, atau anak anak, atau saudara-saudara, ataupun keluarga mereka. Mereka itulah orang-orang yang Allah telah menanamkan keimanan dalam hati mereka dan menguatkan mereka dengan pertolongan yang datang daripada-Nya. Dan dimasukkan-Nya mereka ke dalam surga yang mengalir di bawahnya sungai-sungai, mereka kekal di dalamnya.

Allah ridha terhadap mereka dan mereka pun merasa puas terhadap (limpahan rahmat)-Nya. Mereka itulah golongan Allah. Ketahuilah, bahawa sesungguhnya golongan Allah itulah golongan yang beruntung.” (Al-Mujadalah: 22)

Ayat di atas tidak menyebabkan Abu ‘Ubaidah membusungkan dada. Bahkan

menambah kukuh imannya kepada Allah dan ketulusannya terhadap agama. Orang yang mendapat gelar ‘kepercayaan ummat Muhammad” ini ternyata menarik perhatian orang-orang besar, bagaikan besi berani menarik logam di sekitarnya.

Muhammad bin Ja’far menceritakan, “Pada suatu ketika para utusan kaum Nasrani

datang menghadap kepada Rasulullah. Kata mereka, “Ya, Aba Qasim! Kirimlah bersama kami seorang sahabat Anda yang Anda pandang cakap menjadi hakim tentang harta yang menyebabkan kami berselisih sesama kami. Kami senang menerima putusan yang ditetapkan kaum muslimin.”

Jawab Rasulullah, ‘Datanglah nanti petang, saya akan mengirimkan bersama kalian

Orang yang paling dipercayai”

Kata ‘Umar bin Khaththab, “Saya pergi shalat Zhuhur lebih cepat dan biasa. Saya tidak ingin tugas itu diserahkan kepada orang lain, kerana saya ingin mendapatkan gelar “orang yg paling dipercayai”. Sesudah selesai shalat Zhuhur, Rasulullah menengok ke kanan dan ke kiri. Saya agàk menonjolkan diri supaya Rasulullah melihat saya. Tetapi beliau tidak melihat lagi kepada kami. Setelah beliau melihat Abu ‘Ubaidah bin Jarrah, beliau memanggil seraya berkata kepadanya, ‘Pergilah engkau bersama mereka. Adili dengan baik perkara yang mereka perselisihkan.” Maka pergilah Abu ‘Ubaidah dengan para utusan Nasrani tersebut, menyandang gelar “orang yang paling dipercayai”.

Abu ‘Ubaidah bukanlah sekedar orang kepercayaan semata-mata. Bahkan dia seorang yang berani memikul kepercayaan yang dibebankan kepadanya. Keberanian itu ditunjukkannya dalam berbagai peristiwa dan tugas yang dipikulkan kepadanya.

Pada suatu hari Rasulullah saw. mengirim satu pasukan yang terdiri dari para sahabat untuk menghadang kafilah Quraisy. Beliau mengangkat Abu ‘U,baidah menjadi kepala pasukan, dan membekali mereka hanya dengan sekarung kurma. Tidak lebih dri itu. Kerana itu Abu ‘Ubaidah membagi-bagikan kepada para prajuritnya sehari sebuah kurma bagi seorang. Mereka mengulum kurma itu seperti menghisap gula-gula. Sesudah itu mereka minum. Hanya begitu mereka makan untuk beberapa hari.

Waktu kaum muslimin kalah dalam perang Uhud, kaum musyrikin sedemikian bernafsu ingin membunuh Rasulullah saw. Waktu itu, Abu ‘Ubaidah termasuk sepuluh orang yang selalu membentengi Rasulullah. Mereka mempertaruhkan dada mereka ditembus panah kaum musyrikin, demi keselamatan Rasulullah saw. Ketika pertempuran telah usai, sebatang taring Rasulullah ternyata patah. Kening beliau luka, dan di pipi beliau tertancap dua mata rantai baju besi beliau. Abu Bakar menghampiri Rasulullah hendak mencabut kedua mata rantai itu dan pipi beliau.

Kata Abu ‘Ubaidah, “Biarlah saya yang mencabut nya!” Abu Bakar menyilakan Abu ‘Ubaidah. Abu ‘Ubaidah kuatir kalau Rasulullah kesakitan bila dicabutnya dengan tangan. Maka digigitnya mata rantai itu kuat-kuat de ngan giginya lalu ditariknya. Setelah mata rantai itu tercabut, gigi Abu ‘Ubaidah tanggal satu. Kemudian digigit

nya pula mata rantai yang sebuah lagi. Setelah tercabut, gigi Abu ‘Ubaidah tanggal pula sebuah lagi. Kata Abu Bakar, “Abu ‘Ubaidah orang ompong yang paling cakap.”

Abu ‘Ubaidah selalu mengikuti Rasulullah berperang dalam setiap peperangan yang

dipimpin beliau, sampai beliau wafat. Dalam musyawarah pemilihan Khalifah yang pertama (Yaumus-saqifah), ‘Umar bin Khaththab mengulurkan tangannya kepadà Abu ‘Ubaidah seraya berkata, “Saya memilih Anda dan bersumpah setia dengan Anda. Kerana saya pernah mendengar Rasulullah saw. bersabda:. “Sesungguhnya tiap-tiap ummat mempunyai orang dipercayai. Orang yang paling dipercaya dan ummat ini adalah Anda (Abu ‘Ubaidah).”

Jawab Abu ‘Ubaidah, “Saya tidak mahu mendahului orang yang pernah disuruh

Rasulullah untuk mengimami kita shalat sewaktu beliau hidup (Abu Bakar). walaupun sekarang beliau telah wafat, marilah kita imamkan juga dia.” Akhirnya mereka sepakat memilih Abu Bakar menjadi Khalifah Pertama, sedangkan Abu ‘Ubaidah menjadi penasihat dan pembantu utama bagi Khalifah. Setelah Abu Bakar, jabatan khalifah pindah ke tangan ‘Umar bin Khatthab Al-Faruq. Abu ‘Ubaidah selalu dekat dengan ‘Umar dan tidak pernah membangkang perintahnya, kecuali

sekali.

Tahukah Anda, perintah Khalifah ‘Umar yang bagaimanakah yang tidak dipatuhi Abu

Ubaidah? Peristiwa itu terjadi ketika Abu ‘Ubaidah bin Jarrah memimpin tentara muslimin menaklukkan wilayah Syam (Syria). Dia berhasil memperoleh kemenangan demi ke menangan berturut-turut, sehingga seluruh wilayah Syam takluk ke bawah kekuasaannya sejak dan tepi sungai Furat di sebelah Timur sampai ke Asia Kecil di sebelah Utara. Sementara itu, di negeri Syam berjangkit penyakit menular (Taun / Cholera) yang amat berbahaya, yang belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya, sehingga korban berjatuhan. Khalifah ‘Umar datang dari Madinah , sengaja hendak menemui Abu ‘Ubaidah. Tetapi ‘Umar tidak dapat masuk kota kerana penyakit yang sedang mengganas itu. Lalu ‘Umar menulis surat kepada Abu ‘Ubaidah sebagai berikut:

“Saya sangat penting bertemu dengan Saudara. Tetapi saya tidak dapat menemui

Saudara kerana wabak penyakit sedang berjangkit dalam kota. Kerana itu bila surat ini sampai ke tangan Saudara malam hari, saya harap Saudara berangkat menemui saya di luar kota sebelum Subuh. Dan bila surat ini sampai ke tangan siang hari, saya harap Saudara berangkat sebelum hari petang.”

Setelah surat Khalifah tersebut dibaca Abu ‘Ubaidah, dia berkata, “Saya tahu maksud

Amirul Mu’minin memanggil saya. Beliau ingin supaya saya menyingkir dari pe nyakit yang berbahaya ini.”

Lalu dibalasnya surat Khalifah, katanya; “Ya, Amirul Mu’minin! Saya mengerti maksud Khalifah memanggil saya. Saya berada di tengah tengah tentara muslimin, sedang bertugas memimpin mereka. Saya tidak ingin meninggalkan mereka dalam bahaya yang mengancam hanya untuk menyelamatkan diri sendiri. Saya tidak

ingin berpisah dengan mereka, sehingga Allah memberi keputusan kepada kami semua (selamat atau binasa). Maka bila surat ini sampai ke tangan Anda, ma’afkanlah saya tidak dapat memenuhi permintaan Anda, dan beri izinlah saya untuk tetap tinggal bersama-sama mereka.”

Setelah Khalifah ‘Umar selesai membaca surat tersebut, beliau menangis sehingga air matanya meleleh ke pipinya. Kerana sedih dan terharu melihat Umar menangis, maka orang yang disamping beliau bertanya, “Ya, Amiral Mu’ minin! Apakah Abu ‘Ubaidah wafat?” “Tidak!” jawab ‘Umar. “Tetapi dia berada di ambang kematian.”

Dugaan Khalifah tersebut tidak salah. Kerana tidak lama sesudah itu Abu ‘Ubaidah

terserang wabak yang sangat berbahaya.

Sebelum kematiannya Abu ‘Ubaidah berwasiat kepada seluruh prajuritnya: “Saya berwasiat kepada Anda sekalin. Jika wasiat ini kalian terima dan laksanakan, kalian tidak akan sesat dari jalan yang baik, dan senantiasa berada dalam bahagia.

“Tetaplah menegakkan shalat. Laksanakan puasa Ramadhan. Bayar sedekah (zakat).

Tunaikan ibadah haji dan ‘umrah. Hendaklah kalian saling menasihati sesama kalian. Nasihati pemerintah kalian, jangan dibiarkan mereka tersesat. Dan janganlah kalian tergoda oleh dunia. Walaupun seseorang bisa berusia panjang sampai senibu tahun, namun akhinnya dia akan menjumpai kematian seperti yang kalian saksikan ini.

“Wassalamu’alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh…” Kemudian dia menoleh kepada

Mu’adz bin Jabal. Katanya, “Hai, Mu’adz! Sekarang engkau menjadi Imam (Panglima)!”

Tidak lama kemudian, ruhnya yang suci berangkat ke rahmatullah. Dia telah tiada di dunia fana. Jasadnya tidak lama pula habis dimakan masa. Tetapi amal pengorbanannya akan tetap hidup selama lamanya.

Mu’adz bin Jabal berdiri di hadapan jama’ahnya, lalu dia berpidato:

“Ayyuhannaas! (Hai sekalian manusia!) Kita semua sama-sama merasa sedih kehilangan dia (Abu ‘Ubaidah). Demi Allah! Saya tidak melihat orang yang lapang dada melebihi dia. Saya tidak melihat orang yang lebih jauh dan kepalsuan, selain dia. Saya tidak tahu; kalau ada orang yang lebih menyukai kehidupan akhirat melebihi dia. Dan saya tidak tahu, kalau ada orang yang suka memberi nasihat kepada umum melebihi dia. Kerana itu marilah kita memohon rahmat

Allah baginya, semoga Allah melimpahkan rahmat-Nya pula kepada kita semua.

Amin!!

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